The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Allah has decreed proficiency in everything. If you kill, then kill or slaughter something, then do so in a good manner. He should sharpen his blade and make it easy for the animal.” [Sahîh Muslim]
Muslims are categorically prohibited from abusing animals. The Prophet (peace be upon him) informs us of how a woman earned Allah’s wrath for her mistreatment of a cat. She entered the Hellfire on account of a cat that she imprisoned, neither feeding it nor letting it hunt for food. [Sahîh al-Bukhârî]
Islamic Law requires from us to be good and kind in our treatment of everything. This is especially true for those mute animals who are unable to protest or defend themselves against abuse.
Even when it comes to our lawfully slaughtering an animal for food, Islam takes the animal’s interests into consideration. We must make sure the blade is sharp, so as not to prolong the pain of slaughter by using a dull knife. We are not supposed to allow the animal to see the blade beforehand.
How much worse is it for one who raises a newborn calf in a state of abuse and misery, so that it suffers from the ailments and trauma described in your question? If the animal dies on account of such mistreatment, it is possible that the ones responsible for the calf will be punished in Hell on account of it, just like the lady who abused the cat was punished.
As for eating the veal itself, this is permissible as long as it does not cause any harm to the health of those who eat it. The meat of the calf is lawful, provided it is properly slaughtered. If eating the meat poses a health risk, then it will be unlawful to do so, since the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “There shall be neither harm nor the causing of harm.” [Sunan Ibn Mâjah, Mustadrak al-Hâkim, and others]
And Allah knows best.