I have split The Prayer into two parts, one for me and one for My servant, and My servant will have what he asks for.If the basmalah were part of Sûrah al-Fâtihah, scholars argue, it would have been mentioned in this hadîth. This is the view of the majority of scholars.
When the servant says: Praise be to Allah, the Lord of All the Worlds, I say: ‘My servant has praised Me.’
When he says: The Most Gracious, Most Merciful, I say: ‘My servant has extolled Me.’
When he says Master of the Day of Judgment, I say: ‘My servant has glorified Me’ or ‘My servant has deferred to Me.’
When he says: You alone we worship and from You alone we seek help, I say: ‘This is between Me and My servant, and my servant will have what he asks for.’
When he says: Guide us to the straight way, The way of those on whom you have bestowed Your grace, not the way of those who earn Your anger, nor of those who go astray, I say: ‘This is for My servant, and My servant will have what he asks for.”
`Abd Allah b. `Amr relates that Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) said: “The time for observing the Zuhr prayer begins when the Sun declines from its zenith until the time when a man’s shadow is equal to his height, and this is when the time of `Asr prayer comes in. The time for observing the `Asr prayer continues up to the time when the Sun turns yellow. The time for observing the Maghrib prayer remains until the light disappears from the sky. The time for observing the `Ishâ’ prayer is up until the middle of the night. The time for observing the Morning prayer starts from the advent of dawn and continues up until sunrise. When the Sun starts to rise, desist from prayer, since it rises between the two horns of Satan.”This is an authentic hadîth related in Sahîh Muslim.
The Prophet (peace be upon him) was approached by Gabriel who said to him: “Stand and offer the prayer.” He prayed the Zuhr prayer at the time when the Sun began its descent from its zenith.Al-Bukhârî said about this hadîth: “It is the most authentic of what is related about the times of prayer.”
Gabriel approached him again at the time for the `Asr prayer and said: “Stand and offer the prayer.” He prayed the `Asr prayer at the time when the shadow of every object was equal to its height.
Then Gabriel came to him at the time of sunset and said: “Stand and offer the prayer.” He prayed the Maghrib prayer at that time.
He offered the `Ishâ’ prayer at the time the light disappeared from the horizon.
The angel came to him for the Fajr prayer at the first light of dawn.
On the second day, Gabriel approached him again for the Zuhr prayer and said “Stand and offer the prayer.” He prayed the Zuhr prayer at the time when the shadow of every object was equal to its height.
Gabriel approached him again at the time for the `Asr prayer and said: “Stand and offer the prayer.” He prayed the `Asr prayer at the time when the shadow of every object was equal to double its height.
Then Gabriel came to him at the time of sunset and he offered the prayer at the same time he did before.
He approached him again for the `Ishâ’ prayer after a half of the night [or maybe a third of it] had passed and he offered the prayer.
Then Gabriel came to him at the time the sky had turned very yellow and said “Stand and offer the prayer.” Then he offered the morning prayer.
Then, Gabriel said: “Between the two times is the time for (each) prayer.”
Our scholars have determined that the overall timeframe for `Asr prayer can be divided into five time periods:The Mâlikî jurist al-Azharî writes in al-Thamar al-Dânî(1/88):
1. Ideal time.
2. Preferential time.
3. Permitted time.
4. Disliked postponed time.
5. Time only for those who has a serious excuse.
The ideal time for offering the `Asr prayer is as soon as soon as the prayer comes in. The preferential time continues on up until the shadow of an object reaches double the object’s height. The permitted time continues on until the Sun turns a yellow color. It is disliked to postpone offering the `Asr prayer until after the Sun turns yellow but before the Sun sets.
As for the time for those who have a serious excuse, that is the time of the Zuhr prayer. It is for those who have the right to offer the Zuhr and `Asr prayer together at the time of Zuhr, like during a journey or because of rain.
At all of these times, the person offering the `Asr prayer is considered as offering the prayer on time. The prayer is only considered as being made up if it its time elapses by the occurrence of sunset. And Allah knows best.
The end of the preferential time for the Zuhr prayer is when the shadow of objects are the same as their height… The start of the preferential time of the `Asr prayer is the same as the end of the preferential time for Zuhr…The end of the preferential time for `Asr is when the shadows of objects become double their height. The ideal is to offer the `Asr prayer at the beginning of its time.Pinpointing the Time When the Sun Turns Yellow:
What comes to mind from hearing the phrase “the Sun turns yellow” is that the appearance of the Sun’s disc changes color from white to yellow. This is how scholars of the Hanafî school of law define it. They give further precision to this definition with a rule of thumb: that a person should be able to look upon the Sun’s disc without causing discomfort to the eyes. If the eye’s feel strain from looking at the Sun, then the Sun has not yet turned yellow. This is the view that the Hanafî school of law adopts as correct.Dr. Hasan Bâsirah, professor of Astronomy at King `Abd al-`Azîz University quotes the above passage from Dr al-Shaykh’s book, and then adds:
There are two other opinions that some of their scholars have expressed.
1. The change in the Sun is defined by its position. It is when the Sun’s position above the horizon appears no more the height of a spear.
2. The change of color applies to the color of the sunlight. When the sunlight hitting the ground and the walls turns from white to yellow, this is the time. It is not determined by the color of the disc of the Sun itself.
This opinion is the one adopted by the scholars of the Mâlikî school of law. According to my estimation, adopting this opinion would makes the time of the Sun’s yellowing occur about 20 minutes earlier.
As for the Shâfi`î and Hanbalî schools of law, I did not come a cross any definition for “the yellowing of the Sun” in the legal books that I had at my disposal. It seems from the way they discuss the matter that they agree with the official Hanafî position, which is that what matters is the color of the Sun’s disc.
This definition agrees with a variant wording of the hadîth narrated by `Abd Allah `Amr b. al-`As which reads: “The time for observing the `Asr prayer continues up to the time when the Sun turns yellow and its first horn falls away.” The meaning of the phrase “its first horn falls away” refers to the lowest portion of the Sun’s disc. In this narration, the disc of the Sun is clearly what is being described.
I estimate this time to be roughly 15 minutes before the Sun sets.
Building upon the alternate and more cautious Hanafî opinion that the time is when the Sun reaches the distance of a spear-length above the horizon, which is about 5 degrees. We can compare this to the time of the Duhâ prayer in the morning against the length of the day. The result is about 20 minutes before sunset.
And Allah knows best.
The distance of a spear-length from the horizon s estimated at no less than 4.5 degrees from the 180 degree path of the Sun through the sky from the eastern to the western horizon. It take the Sun for minutes to pass through one degree of the sky. In this way, we can determine that the Sun reaches the point where it is a spear-length above the horizon around 18 to 20 minutes before sunset.Dr. Ahmad al-Hajjî al-Kurdî, member of the Fatwa Council of Kuwait, concurs with this assessment in The Encyclopedia of Islamic Law, where he writes:
The yellowing of the Sun takes place roughly a half hour before sunset in the Summer and roughly 20 minutes before Sunset in the winter.And Allah knows best.
Two holidays there are for those with sense.He wrote these verses to refute another poet who had added the Prophet's birthday to the list of Muslim holidays and said:
There is no third to these if we desire
To be secure in our auspicious day.
They are the `Ids of Fitr and of Adhâ.
Any addition to these is a departure
From Prophet Muhammad's guidance and his way.
Fitr, Adhâ, and the birthday –These two holidays – `Id al-Fitr and `Id al-Adhâ – have been prescribed for us by Allah. They are among the most conspicuous symbols of Islam. The Muslims should be eager to observe these days and bring to mind what these days mean to us.
Three holidays the Muslims share.
These holidays end, but gladness remains
Because Muhammad's love is there.
1. What We Say About AllahThis is clearly the most important area wherein we must ascertain the truth before speaking. Allah says: “Say: the things that my Lord hath indeed forbidden are: shameful deeds, whether open or secret; sins and trespasses against truth or reason; assigning of partners to Allah, for which He hath given no authority; and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge.” [Sûrah al-A`râf: 33]
2. What We Attribute to the Prophet (peace be upon him)We should take care to ascertain that what we convey of the Prophet’s words and actions are true. Telling a lie about the Prophet (peace be upon him) is far worse than telling a lie about somebody else. This is because the Prophet (peace be upon him) came with Allah’s guidance to humanity. When we misrepresent the Prophet’s teachings, we misrepresent Allah’s message.
3. What We Attribute to the Religious ScholarsIt is important to be certain of what we claim various scholars of the past have said, or those of the present are saying. We must be sure about the rulings that they give and not attribute to them opinions that they do not hold. The mistakes that people make in this regard can lead to a lot of confusion and misunderstandings.
4. What We Say about People in GeneralActually, there is usually no reason for us to say anything about ordinary people. We should only speak about people when there is a real need to do so and a real benefit that is hoped to be achieved. However, because of the weakness of character in this day and age, rumor-mongering has become commonplace, and people are all too eager to hear the latest gossip and then pass it on.
A man came to Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) and asked him about the times of the prayers. The Prophet (peace be upon him) did not give him an answer.We can see in this hadîth that the time for Zuhr begins right as the Sun begins to descend from the highest point in the sky at midday and continues right up to the time of `Asr. We can also see that the Prophet (peace be upon him) on that occasion led the congregation for the Zuhr prayer at its latest possible time.
Instead, when the time for Fajr came, he offered it at the crack of dawn. It was so early in the morning that the people could barely make each other out. Then he called for the man later, right as the Sun began to decline from its zenith in the sky, and offered the Zuhr prayer. The man commented: “It’s exactly midday.”
Then he called upon him and offered the `Asr prayer at the time when the Sun was still high in the sky. Then he called upon the man again and held the Maghrib prayer as soon as the Sun had set. He called upon him and offered the `Ishâ’ prayer when the red glow had faded from the sky.
On the following day, the Prophet (peace be upon him) postponed holding the Fajr prayer so long that when the prayer was over, the man commented: “The Sun has practically risen.”
Likewise, he postponed the Zuhr prayer until it was almost the time that he had held the `Asr prayer on the previous day. He then delayed the `Asr prayer so much that when it was over, the man said: “The Sun has turned red.”
Then he delayed the Maghrib prayer until the red glow was just about to fade from the sky. He then delayed holding the `Ishâ’ prayer until a third of the night had passed.
Then he summoned the man to him and said: “The times for the prayers are between the two.”