They followed that which the devils falsely related against the kingdom of Solomon. Solomon did not disbelieve; but the devils disbelieved, teaching mankind magic and that which was revealed to the two angels in Babel, Hârût and Mârût. Nor did they (the two angels) teach it to anyone till they had said: “Surely we are only a trial, so do not disbelieve (in Allah).” And people learned from these two that by which they could cause division between man and wife; but they could injure thereby no-one save by Allah’s leave. And they learned that which harms them and profits them not. And surely they knew that he who trafficked therein will have no share in the Hereafter; and surely evil is the price for which they sold their souls, if they but knew.The books of commentary mentioned their story in detail, but there is disagreement about their nature and what was sent to them.
It is not obligatory on a man to divorce his wife out of obedience to his parents. If his father orders him to divorce his wife, he does not have to do so. This has been mentioned by most of the senior students (of Ahmad).Al-Bahûtî writes in Kashhâf al-Qunnâ` (5/233):
Al-Sindî relates that a man told Ahmad: “My father orders me to divorce my wife.”
Ahmad relied: “Do not divorce her.” – meaning: “Do not divorce her on account of your father’s orders until your father becomes like `Umar in ascertaining what is true and just and in not merely following his personal inclinations in such matters.”
…Whoever is ordered by his mother to divorce his wife is not allowed to do so. Indeed, he must honor his mother, but divorcing his wife is not part of honoring his mother.
A man does not have to divorce his wife if his father orders him to do so. He is not required to obey his father when it comes to divorce, since he is being ordered to do something that is not in agreement with Islamic dictates.And Allah knows best.
IslamToday: How successful have women been in the field of Islamic work?Frankly, women have been making slow progress in the field of Islamic work. Islamic work is something that appears like something new for women in today’s society. However, it was not something strange in the past. Women used to work for the spread of Islam. They had been doing so since the time when Prophet’s wives were active in teaching and spreading Islam among women. Women have been preaching Islam for ages. If we look back at our history, we find that in the past there were many women who were jurists, hadîth scholars, and preachers.
IslamToday: Please explain the need for Muslim women preachers and tell us what is required of them.The obligation to preach Islam is the same for men and women. The Qur’ân discusses men and women together in this respect, when it says: “The believers, men and the women, are guardians of each other; they enjoin good and forbid evil, keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate, and obey Allah and His Messenger; (as for) these, Allah will show mercy to them; surely Allah is Mighty, Wise.” [Sûrah al-Tawbah: 71]
IslamToday: Some people look upon Muslim women preachers with suspicion. Is there any justification for this?This is true. The reason for it is the general ignorance in society about Islam, especially since the times that people generally became far away from their religion. This is not only true for women, but for men as well. During the centuries of colonial occupation, the Muslim edifice was weakened. As a result, traditions and customs took over in determining how women were regarded in society. Women took many steps backward because of this. They lost what they had formerly achieved of progress and development in Muslim society, and as a consequence, they became religiously illiterate.
Allah says: “O you who believe, why do you say what you do not do? It is most hateful to Allah for you to say what you do not do.” [Sûrah al-Saff: 2-3]
As far as the divorce itself is concerned, it will take place as long as the husband is in full possession of his mental faculties and acts of his own choice. However, the woman will inherit from his estate, according to the opinion of the majority of the leading scholars of Islam. This is school of thought of Mâlik, Ahmad, and Abû Hanîfah, and it is the older opinion of al-Shâfi`î.Ibn Taymiyah was also asked about a man who, during his death illness, divorced his wife with a single pronouncement of divorce before consummation of the marriage. He was asked if it would be construed as a divorce to prevent her from her share of inheritance, legally necessitating that the opposite of his intentions be carried out and that she be granted her share of his estate and her full dowry. Or will she receive no share of the estate and only half of the dowry?
This was also the verdict implemented by the Caliph `Uthmân for the wife of `Abd al-Rahmân b. `Awf. `Abd al-Rahmân b. `Awf had divorced her in his death illness, but `Uthmân affirmed her share of his estate.
The woman has to observe the longest of the two waiting periods, whether it be the waiting period for divorce or death. However, if the husband had lost possession of his mental faculties, then his divorce is invalid from the outset.
This is the correct opinion that I also adopt.
There are two opinions among the scholars regarding the woman who is divorced before her marriage is consummated. The most correct one is that she is also entitled to inherit. This is the opinion of the school of thought of Mâlik and Ahmad – according to the well-known saying related from him – and that of al-Shâfi`î. This is because it was related that `Uthmân gave such a woman her share of the estate after her waiting period elapsed.
Such a woman only inherits on account of her right connected with the estate when the husband suffers from his death illness and consequently has his right to dispose of his property curtailed so that he may not transfer any of his wealth to those who are his inheritors not grant to non-inheritors more than a third of his estate, in the same way that he has no right to do so after his death. Since his right to dispose of his property during his death illness with respect to his inheritors is the same as it is after death, he consequently has no authority to prevent her from her share after falling ill. This is what the scholars call a divorce of avoidance.