Coexistence is Strength
  • Mon, 07/23/2007
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It is a sad fact that the idea of coexistence is far removed from the conceptual reality of certain sectors of Muslim society. We do not even have to discuss coexistence between Muslims and people of other faith – there is a lack of willingness for some groups of Muslims to coexist with other Muslims who happen to follow a different school of jurisprudence, or are affiliated with a different political party, or are from a different country… or in some cases, belong to a different Arab tribe. These divisions sometimes erupt into violence, causing us to ask: What has torn us apart like this?

Too many people see the idea of coexistence as a strategy to resort to in times of weakness. This is not true at all. What we see if we observe the world is that coexistence really comes into full flower and sets its roots deep when there is strength. The societies which have the power to promote coexistence and peace are the same ones who have the power to instigate and successfully conduct a war. By contrast, those who are weak can neither conduct war nor bring about peace. It is, indeed, at times of weakness and instability that we find the noble idea of coexistence to be most imperiled.

It shows strength to be able to accommodate disagreements and dissention, to be able to encompass various outlooks, social tendencies, and aspirations while not having any group’s vested interests spiral into discord or civil strife. Strength is not about imposing one particular view by force.

Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “The strong person is not the one who can wrestle another to the ground; the strong person is the one who can restrain himself when he is angry.” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî and Sahîh Muslim]

When the Caliph `Umar b. al-Khattâb entered Jerusalem to receive the keys to the city, he was invited to pray inside the church, but he declined. He refused to do so, though he was in a position of strength and could do as he pleased. He refused, though he did not in any way disdain praying in the church. He said, showing great foresight and sensitivity: “I fear that if I pray inside, the Muslims of future times will wish to pray In the same spot and will cause discomfort for the church’s congregation.”

`Umar, instead, prayed outside the church and then spoke a guarantee to the Christians for their lives and security.

Though Richard the Lionhearted had once killed 2,700 Muslim prisoners of war on a single occasion and hung their bodies around the walls of the city of Acre, breaking the agreement he had made with the Muslims, we see that Saladin, when he retook Jerusalem, guaranteed the lives of everyone, Jews and Christians alike, though he was more then capable of exacting revenge. He instead entered into the Treaty of Ramla with Richard on 2 September 1192, whereby the city would stay in Muslim hands but would remain open to Christian pilgrimages. This is one of the hallmarks of coexistence in medieval history.

Muslim history, which is full of periods of strength and victory, is at the same time a testament to coexistence in action. It is a history of peace treaties, agreements, and covenants with others.

Allah says: “O you who believe, uphold your covenants.” [Sûrah al-Mâ’idah: 1]

Allah says: “Keep the covenants. Lo! The covenant will be asked about.” [Sûrah al-Isrâ’: 34]

The Prophet (peace be upon him) said: “Whoever kills a person who is under a covenant, that killer will not smell the scent of Paradise, though its scent can be detected for the distance of a journey of forty years.”

Once, the Prophet (peace be upon him) saw a funeral procession pass by. He stood for it. When he was told that it was the funeral of a Jew, he replied: “Was he not a human soul?” [Sahîh al-Bukhârî and Sahîh Muslim]

Look at how Ibn Taymiyah addressed the King of Cyprus:

News has reached me of the devoutness and grace of the Cypriot King, as well as his love of knowledge and study. I have seen how Sheikh Abû al-`Abbâs al-Maqdisî has shown thanks to the King for his gentleness, kindness, and hospitality, and equally extended thanks to the priests and their peers.

We are a people who love goodness for everyone, and it is our hope that Allah will to bring to you all the good of this world and the next.

Ibn Taymiyah called upon him not only to free the Muslim prisoners of war that he had, but also the Tatars, Jews, and Christians, saying:

We wish you to free all those with you who are Jews and Christians and under our legal protection. We will not abandon any prisoner who is our citizen, regardless of whether he is Muslim. And likewise know that all the prisoners of war that we have with us who are Christians, they all know of our goodness and mercy to them, which the Final Messenger has enjoined upon us.

Sadly, when some people are overwhelmed by a sense of defeat, they can only see the language of coexistence as a justification for -- and acceptance of -- their defeat. Others look towards an idealistic notion of coexistence that has no practical expression. A true appreciation of coexistence can bring an end to this confusion.

The success of coexistence depends upon the airing of rational voices willing to engage in fruitful dialogue, through which desired results can be achieved with ease. By contrast, the failure of coexistence is ensured when irrational and foolish voices take over. Such are the voices of people who care for nothing but to gratify  their own interests. They rely upon the discourse of strength and coercion in their understanding of the world and in their decision making. They see conflict as the key to dealing with others. They cannot look at things from the vantage point of our shared humanity, our universal values, and the common needs and interests that all people have.

Warmongers never think except in the context of war. Their discourse comes inevitably to one sorrowful conclusion.

The purpose of religion – contrary to what some people seem to think – is not to cause conflict between people, but rather to give a moral shape and harmonious order to human interaction and to ensure successful cooperation in improving our lives on Earth.

Allah says about humanity: “It is He Who has produced you from the Earth and settled you therein.” [Sûrah Hûd: 61]

When Allah created Adam (peace be upon him) he created him to develop the Earth, to explore it and cultivate it.

The angels at first objected to the creation of the human being, saying: “Do you place therein those who will cause strife and bloodshed, while we glorify You with praise and exalt You?” [Sûrah al-Baqarah: 30]

The angels knew full well that Allah hates strife and bloodshed. Certainly, Allah did not create humanity and give us the scriptures so we could fight each other.

The duty the Muslims have to spread the Message of Islam requires winning over people’s hearts and minds. People need to know about Islam as it really is. We as Muslims need to exercise patience and forbearance. We need to respond to abuse with kindness, as Allah has repeatedly commanded us to do in the Qur’ân.

“The good deed and the evil deed are not alike. Repel evil with what is better, then lo! he, between whom and you there had been enmity, will become like a bosom friend.” [Sûrah Fussilat: 34]

This is how Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) won over the hearts of his enemies. He responded to their harshness and coarseness with kindness, until their hearts softened and they were receptive to hear the truth.

Kind treatment, genuine concern, friendship,and treating others well in word and deed – these are the ways to bring an end to hatred and reconcile people. Allah says: “And no one will be granted such goodness except those who exercise patience and self-restraint, none but persons of the greatest good fortune.” [Sûrah Fussilat: 35]

Coexistence preserves human life. It opens the doors to dialogue. It is the atmosphere in which the Message of Islam prospers, where it can present itself with the reason, evidence, and logic that so enriches the Qur’ân.