Allah manifested numerous miracles at the hands of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). They were signs to show a truth-seeker the veracity of his message. There are numerous miracles; however, I would only mention a few of the most prominent ones.
1. The Qur’ân
This is the greatest miracle, for it addresses the hearts and minds. It is also the most enduring, since it will remain until the day of Judgment, without change or alteration.
Allah says: “Surely those who disbelieve in the reminder when it comes to them (are not hidden from Us). And most surely it is a mighty Book: Falsehood shall not come to it from before it nor from behind it; a revelation from the Wise, the Praised One”. [Sûrah Fussilat: 41-42]
Allah has challenged humanity to come with even a chapter like the Qur’ân. Allah says: “Say (O Muhammad) if humankind and the Jinn were to come together to produce something like this Qur’ân, they would not be able to do so, even if they were to help one another.”
Allah says: “Or they say: ‘He has forged it.’ Say: ‘Then bring ten forged chapters like it and call whoever you can besides Allah if you are truthful.’ If then they do not answer you, know that it is sent down with the Knowledge of Allah, besides Whom there is no other God. Will you then be Muslims?”
Allah says: “And if you are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down to Our servant, then produce a chapter like it and call your witnesses besides Allah if you be truthful. If you do not do so – and you will never do so – then fear a fire whose fuel is men and stones prepared for the disbelievers.”
No one has ever been able to write something in the style of the Qur’ân that even remotely approaches its beauty or literary value.
2. The splitting of the Moon
This is also one of the greatest of the Prophet’s miracles. The people of Mecca had asked the Prophet (peace be upon him) to show them a remarkable sign. He showed them the Moon split in two. Allah says: “The hour has drawn nigh and the moon did rend asunder. And if they behold a miracle, they turn away and say: transient magic.” [Sûrah al-Qamar: 1-2].
Anas b. Mâlik relates: “The people of Mecca asked the Prophet to show them a sign. He showed then the splitting of the Moon, twice.” [Sahîh Muslim (2802)]
In another narration through `Abd Allah b. Mas`ûd, says: “While we were with the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Minâ, the Moon cleft asunder. One part was behind the mountain and the other before it. The Prophet (peace be upon him) at that time said: “Bear witness!” [Sahîh Muslim: 2800]
The cleaving of the Moon in two was seen all around the Arabian Peninsula. The disbelievers among the people of Mecca thought that the Prophet (peace be upon him) had conjured up some magic against them. To ascertain if this was the case, they decided to ask travelers from other localities what they had seen. They knew that it would not have been possible for Muhammad (peace be upon him) to enchant all the people of Arabia. However, when they enquired with various delegations from outside of Mecca, it turned out that they had all witnessed the splitting of the Moon.
3. The increase of food
This miracle took place on several occasions.
One instance, narrated by Jâbir, took place during the Battle of the Trench. Jâbir relates [Sahîh al-Bukhârî (4102) and Sahîh Muslim (2039)]:
While the trench was being dug, I saw the Prophet (peace be upon him) in a state of severe hunger. So I returned to my wife and asked: “Have you got anything (to eat), for I have seen Allah’s Messenger in a state of severe hunger.”
She brought out for me a bag containing about four double-handfuls of barley. We also had a goat which I slaughtered. My wife ground the barley into flour and finished doing so about the time I finished slaughtering the goat. Then I cut the meat into pieces and put it in an earthenware cooking pot, and (while it was cooking), I made to return to Allah’s Messenger.
My wife said: “Do not disgrace me in front of Allah’s Messenger and those who are with him.”
So I went to him and said to him secretly: “O Messenger of Allah! I have slaughtered a small goat of ours, and we have ground up four double-handfuls of barley which we had with us. So please come, you and another person along with you.”
The Prophet raised his voice and said: “O people of trench! Jâbir has prepared a meal, so let us go.” Allah’s Messenger then turned to me and said: “Do not take down your earthenware meat pot (from the cooking fire), and do not bake your dough until I arrive.”
So I returned home, followed by Allah’s Messenger at the head of the people. When I came to my wife, she exclaimed at me harshly.
I said to her: “I did what you wanted.” Then she brought the dough out to the Prophet, and he blew into it and invoked Allah’s blessings on it. Then he proceeded towards our earthenware meat-pot and blew into it and invoked Allah’s blessings on it. Then he said (to my wife): “Summon a woman who is a baker to bake it along with you and keep on ladling out servings from your earthenware pot, and do not take it down from its cooking fire.”
They were one-thousand (who took their meals), and I swear by Allah they all ate, and when they left the food and went away, our earthenware pot was still bubbling (full of meat) as if it had not decreased at all, and our dough was still being baked as if nothing had been taken from it.
The miracle of increasing food took place on numerous occasions. However this hadîth is sufficient as an example.